Saxon Period 410 -1066AD

445: Vortigern comes to power in Britain.

450: Vortigern asks the Saxons and Jutes Hengest and Horsa to fight against the Picts.

457:  Vortigern died.

457: Aelle (Ella) and his 3 sons Cymen, Wlenking and Cissa arrive in Sussex

458: Hengest conquers Kent.

466: The Britons defeat the Saxons at the Battle of Wippedesfleot.

470: Ambrosius becomes high king of Britain.

486: The Saxon Aelle fights the British at the Battle of Mercredesburne.

494: Cerdic and his son Cynric lands on the South coast of Britain and establishes what is to become the Kingdom of Wessex.

534: Cerdic is succeeded by Cynric as King of Wessex.

550: St David introduces Christianity to Wales.

577: Battle of Dyrham where King Ceawlin of Wessex and his young son Cuthwine fought the Britons of the West Country and led to the separation of the Britons of south west from Wales.

585: Foundation of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia under Creoda.

597: The Pope sends Augustine to bring the Roman version of Christianity to the Saxons and he founds a church at Canterbury and becomes its first Archbishop.

Era of the early Anglo-Saxon Kings

636: The tribe Ġewisse (early Saxons) were converted to Christianity by Birinus the first Bishop of Dorchester.

664: Synod of Whitby held by the Abbess Hilda marks the decline of the Celtic church over Roman Christianity. Dicul establishes small monastery at Bosham not well received.

666: Bishop Wilfred arrives in Selsey and builds a monastery.

674: Ethelred becomes King of Mercia.

685:Cædwalla Became King of Wessex and Sussex

687: Death of St Cuthbert term South Saxon first used.

688: Cædwalla abdicated leaving for Rome to be baptised by Pope before dying.

725: Venerable Bede  gave the reckoning for the date for Easter.

731: Venerable Bede wrote History of the English People.

757: Offa takes the Kingdom of Mercia.

789: Building of Offa’s dyke to keep out the Welsh from England.

793: First Viking attack on Northumbria.

796: Death of Offa marks the end of Mercian dominance.

800: The Book of Kells is written by Ionian monks.

825: At the Battle of Ellandon Egbert King of Wessex defeats the Mercians and becomes the major power in the region.

836: Egbert is defeated by the Danes at Carhampton, Somerset.

838: Egbert defeats the Danes at Hingston Down in Cornwall.

841: The Vikings found Dublin as a stronghold in Ireland.

851: Vikings attack London and Canterbury.

853: Alfred visits Rome with his father King Ethelwulf.

865: Ethelred the third son of Ethelwulf becomes King of Wessex.

866: Vikings attack York.

871: Ethelred dies of his wounds at the Battle of Ashdown.

Era of King Alfred the Great (871-899)

878: King Alfred defeats the Danes at the Battle of Edington. England is effectively cut into two with Wessex in the south and “The Danelaw” north of Watling Street.

886: King Alfred takes London from the Danes.

891: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was begun.

895: Alfred captures the Danish fleet and they retreat to Northumbria.

Era of Edward the Elder (899-924)

902: The Danish ruler of East Anglia Eric is killed at the Battle of Holme.

903: Monks bury St Edmund at Beodricsworth which is renamed Bury St Edmunds.

920: After several victories Edward rules England and Scotland from the South Coast as far North as the Rivers Forth and Clyde.

Era of Athelstan (924-939)

927: The River Tees now marks the Northern frontier of England.

937: Athelstan defeats Scots, Danes and Celts and takes title of King of Britain.

Era of Edmund (939-946)

943: Malcolm becomes King of the Scots.

Era of Edred (946-955)

946: Edmund is murdered by Leofa when he tries to have him thrown out of a party.

952: The Dane Eric Bloodaxe recaptures York.

954: Edred drives Eric out of York and this is the end of the viking period.

Era of Edwy (955-959)

955: Edwy the son of Edmund becomes King of England.

Era of Edgar the Peaceful (959-975)

959: Edwy’s younger brother Edgar succeeds to the throne.

973: Dunstan the Archbishop of Canterbury crowns Edgar Emperor of England.

Era of Edgar the Martyr (975-978)

975: Edgar’s son Edward becomes King at the age of thirteen.

Era of Ethelred the Second (The Unready) (978-1013)

978: Edward is murdered at Corfe Castle in Dorset and Edward’s younger brother Ethelred takes on the throne.

980: Further Danish invasions and Ethelred is unable to unite the Kingdom against them.

991: Ethelred buys off the Danes with £10,000 worth of silver known as the Danegeld.

994: Ethelred buys off Sweyn the Dane and Olaf Trygvesson as they besiege London.

1002: The St Brices Day Massacre. Ethelred tries to exterminate all the Danes in England.

1003: Sweyn extracts revenge and then retreats.

1006: Sweyn again returns and sends armies through Berkshire and Hampshire.

1007: Ethelred buys two years peace for £36,000 of silver.

1009: The Danes return.

1010: Attacks on Oxford and East Anglia.

1012: Canterbury is sacked and Archbishop Alphege is murdered. The Danes are bought off for £48,000 of silver.

1013: Sweyn lands in England and is proclaimed King.
Ethelred flees to Normandy.

Era of Canute (1013-35)

1014: On the Death of Sweyn his son Cnut or Canute is elected King by the army. Ethelred is called on by the English and Canute leaves.

1015: Cnut or Canute again invades England.

Era of Edmund Ironside (1016)

1016: Edmund Ironside becomes King of England south of the Thames. He is assassinated and Canute becomes undisputed King.

Era of Canute (1016-35)

1017: Canute divides the Kingdom again into Northumbria, Wessex, Mercia and East Anglia.

1028: Canute also becomes King of Norway.

1031: Canute becomes Overlord of Scotland.

1035: Harold “Harefoot” becomes Regent of England at the Death of Canute.

Era of Edward the Confessor (1042-1066)

1042: Edward half brother of Harthacanute and son of Ethelred becomes King. The english royal line is restored after a period of twenty-nine years.

1045: Edward marries Edith daughter of one of the powerful nobles of Wessex.

1051: Duke William comes to England from Normandy and is promised the throne by Edward after a quarrel with Earl Godwin Edith’s father.

1052: Edward founds Westminster Abbey. Harold succeeds Earl Godwin as Earl of Wessex after he chokes to death.

1057: Lady Godiva rides naked through Coventry.

1064: Harold sails to Rome but is shipwrecked in Normandy and swears a solemn oath that William should succeed him.

1065: Westminster Abbey is finished.

Era of Harold the Second (1066)

1066: 25th September: Harold defeats his brother Tostig and Harold Hardraada at the Battle of Stamford Bridge. Both are killed.