Norman 1066-1485

King William of Normandy (the First, nicknamed the Conqueror (1066-87)

1066: 14th October: William of Normandy lands at Pevensey and marches south to meet Harold at the Battle of Hastings. Harold is slain.

1066-77: Commissioning of the Bayeaux Tapestry.

1073: Uprising of Hereward the Wake against the Normans near Ely.

1077: St Albans Cathedral is begun.

1078: Work is started on the Tower of London.

1086: Domesday Book compiled.

William the Second (1087-1100)

1096: Launch of the First Crusade.

Henry the First (1100-1135)

1110: First mystery play is performed at Dunstable.

1118: Birth of St Thomas Becket .

Stephen (1135-1154)

1141: King Stephen captured by the Scots at Lincoln but the fight was continued by his wife Matilda.

1142: St Thomas Becket as aide to Richer de l' Aigle (Lord of Pevensey) was saved from drowning at Michelham Priory and realised he destined for greater things.

1147: Start of the Second Crusade.

1154: St Thomas Becket appointed Chancellor of England.
Nicholas Brakspear becomes the only English Pope.

Henry the Second (1154-1189)

1160: Birth of Robin Hood.

1162: St Thomas Becket Appointed Archbishop of Canterbury by King Henry.

1170: 29th December: Murder of St Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral.

1180: Glass windows begin to appear in English houses for the first time.

1185: Lincoln Cathedral is destroyed during an earthquake.

Richard the First (“The Lionheart”) (1189-1199)

1191: First Lord Mayor of London appointed.

John (1199-1216)

1202: The fourth crusade is launched.

1215: 5th June: Signing of the Magna Carta, charter of liberties, at Runnymede.

Henry the Third (1216-1272)

1220: The building of Salisbury Cathedral is begun.

1228: The sixth crusade is launched.

1233: Coal is mined at Newcastle commercially for the first time.

1235: The monk Matthew Paris begins his “Historia Major”.

1245: Westminster Abbey is begun to be rebuilt.

1247: Death of Robin Hood in December.
Wales comes under the authority of the English crown at the Treaty of Woodstock.

1248: The Seventh Crusade is launched.

1249: Founding of University College, Oxford.

1258: Simon de Montfort and the English Barons force the King to recognise the powers of Parliament. He starts the first directly elected parliament in Europe.

1265: 4th August: Simon de Montfort is killed at the Battle of Evesham.

1269: The first Toll roads are built in England.

1270: Birth of William Wallace.
The eighth crusade is launched.

1271: The ninth crusade is launched.

Edward the First (1272-1307)

1274: Birth of Robert the Bruce on the 11th July.

1275: First customs duties levied on wool and leather.

1276: The Welsh are led by Llewelyn the Last into the first Welsh war against the English.

1279: John Peckham appointed Archbishop of Canterbury from 1279 to 1292.

1283: Llewelyn is killed and King Edward the First conquers Wales.

1284: 3rd March: Statute of Rhuddlan granting system of government to the Principality of Wales.

1290: Expulsion of the jews from England.

1294: The first Customs Officers are appointed in England.

1296: 27th April: Battle of Dunbar.

1297: William Wallace slays Haselrig, the English Sherrif of Lanark.
11th September: At the Battle of Stirling Bridge William Wallace defeats the English Army.

1298: 22nd July: Battle of Falkirk. William Wallace is defeated by the English.

1305: William Wallace is captured at Robroyston just outside Glasgow by Sir John Menteith and his men.
25th March: The crown of Scotland was placed on Robert the Bruce’s head at Scone.
23rd August: Execution of William Wallace.

1306: Robert the Bruce slays John Comyn in a church at Dumfries.

Edward the Second (1307-1327)

1309: Robert the Bruce holds his first parliament at St Andrews.

1314: 24th June: Battle of Bannockburn. Robert the Bruce defeats King Edward’s much larger English army.

1320: Robert the Bruce makes the “Declaration of Arbroath” which stated he was King of Scots and their defender rather than King of Scotland.

1323: A thirteen year truce is agreed on between England and Scotland.

 

Edward the Third (1327-77)

1328: Robert the Bruce is finally recognised as the rightful King of Scotland at the Treaty of Northampton.

1329: Death of Robert the Bruce on the 7th June.

1332: The first recording of the English parliament being divided into two houses.

1340: England defeats a French fleet at Sluys and gains control of the English Channel.

1342: Birth of Geoffrey Chaucer.

1346: The English defeat the French at the Battle of Crecy.

1347: The English capture Calais in France which becomes a colony.

1348: The Black Death. Serious outbreak of Bubonic Plague. King Edward begins his Order of the Garter with himself, his son the Black Prince and twenty four knights.

1351: Parliament passed the Statute of Labourers in an effort to hold down wages. Rebuilding of Windsor Castle is begun.

1356: 19th September: Battle of Poitiers. Edward the Black Prince defeats the French.

1359: Geoffrey Chaucer served in the army of King Edward the Third in France.
Birth of Owen Glendower.

1361: Second major outbreak of the Black Death.

1373: English Merchants legally have to use tunnage and poundage weights.

Richard the Second (1377-1399)

1380: The implementation of the Third and major “Poll Tax” by an impoverished government.

1381: The Peasant’s Revolt led by Wat Tyler against the Poll Tax.

1382: John Wycliffe is expelled from Oxford due to opposing the church’s doctrines.

1384: First English Bible produced.

1385: Geoffrey Chaucer writes “Troilus and Criseyde”.

1386: Geoffrey Chaucer becomes a Member of Parliament for Kent.

1387: Geoffrey Chaucer begins writing “The Canterbury Tales”.

1398: Winchester College is founded by William of Wykeham.

1399: The Wilton Diptych is painted.

Henry the Fourth (1399-1413)

1400: Death of Geoffrey Chaucer on the 25th October.

1401: Owen Glendower charged with treason by Lord Grey. A new Act comes into force which allows the burning of heretics.

1403: Owen Glendower was defeated near Carmarthen. Battle of Shrewsbury on the 21st July.

1404: Owen Glendower by now had gained overall control of Wales and taken control Harlech Castle.

1407: Major outbreak of plague.

1409: Harlech Castle recaptured by the English and Owen Glendower’s wife, daughter and grandchildren taken prisoner.

Henry the Fifth (1413-1422)

1414: The Lollard Rising.

1415: Battle of Agincourt on the 25th October.

1416: Death of Owen Glendower.

1417: Institution of the Garter King of Arms. An English army is victorious at the Battle of Caen.

1420: At the Treaty of Troyes King Henry is guaranteed the French throne after the death of Charles the Sixth of France.

Henry the sixth: (First Part 1422-1461)

1422: Birth of William Caxton.

1429: Joan of Arc helps relieve Orleans and France itself from the English.

1431: Joan of Arc is burned as a witch in Rouen and King Henry the Sixth is crowned King of France.

1440: Foundation of Eton College by the King for the education of the poor.

1451: Foundation of Glasgow University.

1455-85: The Wars of the Roses.  

1455: Battle of St. Albans on the 22nd May.

1460: King Henry 6th is captured at the Battle of Northampton on the 10 July. Battle of Wakefield on the 30th December.

Edward the Fourth (First Part 1461-1470)

1461: Battle of Towton on the 29th March.

1469: The Shetland Isles become part of Scotland.

1470: Thomas Malory writes €œ”L’ Morte D’Arthur”.

Henry Sixth (Second Part 1470-1471)

Edward the Fourth (Second Part 1471-1483)

1471:  Battle of Tewkesbury on the 4th May.

1474: William Caxton prints the first book in English “The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye” at Bruges.

1475: Birth of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey.

1476: William Caxton sets up a printing press in Westminster.

1477: Birth of Sir ThomasMore on the 7th February. William Caxton made the first printing of Chaucer’s “Canterbury Tales”.

1480: William Caxton prints “The Chronicles of England”.

Edward the Fifth (1483)

1483: Lord Protector Richard assumes the throne from the twelve year old Edward before he could be crowned.

Richard the Third (1483-1485)

Sign up for Newsletter

Subscribe to our newsletter so we can spam you with offers and discounts

We use cookies on our website. Some of them are essential for the operation of the site, while others help us to improve this site and the user experience (tracking cookies). You can decide for yourself whether you want to allow cookies or not. Please note that if you reject them, you may not be able to use all the functionalities of the site.