King William of Normandy (the First, nicknamed the Conqueror (1066-87)
1066: 14th October: William of Normandy lands at Pevensey and marches south to meet Harold at the Battle of Hastings. Harold is slain.
1066-77: Commissioning of the Bayeaux Tapestry.
1073: Uprising of Hereward the Wake against the Normans near Ely.
1077: St Albans Cathedral is begun.
1078: Work is started on the Tower of London.
1086: Domesday Book compiled.
William the Second (1087-1100)
1096: Launch of the First Crusade.
Henry the First (1100-1135)
1110: First mystery play is performed at Dunstable.
1118: Birth of St Thomas Becket .
1141: King Stephen captured by the Scots at Lincoln but the fight was continued by his wife Matilda.
1147: Start of the Second Crusade.
1154: St Thomas Becket appointed Chancellor of England.
Nicholas Brakspear becomes the only English Pope.
Henry the Second (1154-1189)
1160: Birth of Robin Hood.
1162: St Thomas Becket Appointed Archbishop of Canterbury by King Henry.
1170: 29th December: Murder of St Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral.
1180: Glass windows begin to appear in English houses for the first time.
1185: Lincoln Cathedral is destroyed during an earthquake.
Richard the First (“The Lionheart”) (1189-1199)
1191: First Lord Mayor of London appointed.
1202: The fourth crusade is launched.
1215: 5th June: Signing of the Magna Carta, charter of liberties, at Runnymede.
Henry the Third (1216-1272)
1220: The building of Salisbury Cathedral is begun.
1228: The sixth crusade is launched.
1233: Coal is mined at Newcastle commercially for the first time.
1235: The monk Matthew Paris begins his “Historia Major”.
1245: Westminster Abbey is begun to be rebuilt.
1247: Death of Robin Hood in December.
Wales comes under the authority of the English crown at the Treaty of Woodstock.
1248: The Seventh Crusade is launched.
1249: Founding of University College, Oxford.
1258: Simon de Montfort and the English Barons force the King to recognise the powers of Parliament. He starts the first directly elected parliament in Europe.
1265: 4th August: Simon de Montfort is killed at the Battle of Evesham.
1269: The first Toll roads are built in England.
1270: Birth of William Wallace.
The eighth crusade is launched.
1271: The ninth crusade is launched.
Edward the First (1272-1307)
1274: Birth of Robert the Bruce on the 11th July.
1275: First customs duties levied on wool and leather.
1276: The Welsh are led by Llewelyn the Last into the first Welsh war against the English.
1279: John Peckham appointed Archbishop of Canterbury from 1279 to 1292.
1283: Llewelyn is killed and King Edward the First conquers Wales.
1284: 3rd March: Statute of Rhuddlan granting system of government to the Principality of Wales.
1290: Expulsion of the jews from England.
1294: The first Customs Officers are appointed in England.
1296: 27th April: Battle of Dunbar.
1297: William Wallace slays Haselrig, the English Sherrif of Lanark.
11th September: At the Battle of Stirling Bridge William Wallace defeats the English Army.
1298: 22nd July: Battle of Falkirk. William Wallace is defeated by the English.
1305: William Wallace is captured at Robroyston just outside Glasgow by Sir John Menteith and his men.
25th March: The crown of Scotland was placed on Robert the Bruce’s head at Scone.
23rd August: Execution of William Wallace.
1306: Robert the Bruce slays John Comyn in a church at Dumfries.
Edward the Second (1307-1327)
1309: Robert the Bruce holds his first parliament at St Andrews.
1314: 24th June: Battle of Bannockburn. Robert the Bruce defeats King Edward’s much larger English army.
1320: Robert the Bruce makes the “Declaration of Arbroath” which stated he was King of Scots and their defender rather than King of Scotland.
1323: A thirteen year truce is agreed on between England and Scotland.
Edward the Third (1327-77)
1328: Robert the Bruce is finally recognised as the rightful King of Scotland at the Treaty of Northampton.
1329: Death of Robert the Bruce on the 7th June.
1332: The first recording of the English parliament being divided into two houses.
1340: England defeats a French fleet at Sluys and gains control of the English Channel.
1342: Birth of Geoffrey Chaucer.
1346: The English defeat the French at the Battle of Crecy.
1347: The English capture Calais in France which becomes a colony.
1348: The Black Death. Serious outbreak of Bubonic Plague. King Edward begins his Order of the Garter with himself, his son the Black Prince and twenty four knights.
1351: Parliament passed the Statute of Labourers in an effort to hold down wages. Rebuilding of Windsor Castle is begun.
1356: 19th September: Battle of Poitiers. Edward the Black Prince defeats the French.
1359: Geoffrey Chaucer served in the army of King Edward the Third in France.
Birth of Owen Glendower.
1361: Second major outbreak of the Black Death.
1373: English Merchants legally have to use tunnage and poundage weights.
Richard the Second (1377-1399)
1380: The implementation of the Third and major “Poll Tax” by an impoverished government.
1381: The Peasant’s Revolt led by Wat Tyler against the Poll Tax.
1382: John Wycliffe is expelled from Oxford due to opposing the church’s doctrines.
1384: First English Bible produced.
1385: Geoffrey Chaucer writes “Troilus and Criseyde”.
1386: Geoffrey Chaucer becomes a Member of Parliament for Kent.
1387: Geoffrey Chaucer begins writing “The Canterbury Tales”.
1398: Winchester College is founded by William of Wykeham.
1399: The Wilton Diptych is painted.
Henry the Fourth (1399-1413)
1400: Death of Geoffrey Chaucer on the 25th October.
1401: Owen Glendower charged with treason by Lord Grey. A new Act comes into force which allows the burning of heretics.
1403: Owen Glendower was defeated near Carmarthen. Battle of Shrewsbury on the 21st July.
1404: Owen Glendower by now had gained overall control of Wales and taken control Harlech Castle.
1407: Major outbreak of plague.
1409: Harlech Castle recaptured by the English and Owen Glendower’s wife, daughter and grandchildren taken prisoner.
Henry the Fifth (1413-1422)
1414: The Lollard Rising.
1415: Battle of Agincourt on the 25th October.
1416: Death of Owen Glendower.
1417: Institution of the Garter King of Arms. An English army is victorious at the Battle of Caen.
1420: At the Treaty of Troyes King Henry is guaranteed the French throne after the death of Charles the Sixth of France.
Henry the sixth: (First Part 1422-1461)
1422: Birth of William Caxton.
1429: Joan of Arc helps relieve Orleans and France itself from the English.
1431: Joan of Arc is burned as a witch in Rouen and King Henry the Sixth is crowned King of France.
1440: Foundation of Eton College by the King for the education of the poor.
1451: Foundation of Glasgow University.
1455-85: The Wars of the Roses.
1455: Battle of St. Albans on the 22nd May.
1460: King Henry 6th is captured at the Battle of Northampton on the 10 July. Battle of Wakefield on the 30th December.
Edward the Fourth (First Part 1461-1470)
1461: Battle of Towton on the 29th March.
1469: The Shetland Isles become part of Scotland.
1470: Thomas Malory writes œ”L’ Morte D’Arthur”.
Henry Sixth (Second Part 1470-1471)
Edward the Fourth (Second Part 1471-1483)
1471: Battle of Tewkesbury on the 4th May.
1474: William Caxton prints the first book in English “The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye” at Bruges.
1475: Birth of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey.
1476: William Caxton sets up a printing press in Westminster.
1477: Birth of Sir ThomasMore on the 7th February. William Caxton made the first printing of Chaucer’s “Canterbury Tales”.
1480: William Caxton prints “The Chronicles of England”.
Edward the Fifth (1483)
1483: Lord Protector Richard assumes the throne from the twelve year old Edward before he could be crowned.
Richard the Third (1483-1485)